Attempts to explain the rise of Islamic fundamentalism have ranged from works which emphasize the very nature of Islam to works which emphasize poverty and underdevelopment. In his attempt to explain the rise of this phenomenon, Imady pursues a novel approach; namely, one that emphasises organisational evolution. According to Imady, Islamic fundamentalism evolved from an earlier movement known as Islamic reform. The irony, as Imady illustrates, lies in the fact that this evolution was neither willed nor expected by the major proponents of Islamic reform. Rather, the institutions created by Muslim reformers took on a life of their own and were subsequently inflamed by a moral vision and a hostile government.